Category Archive Management

ByMani Prithiviraj

Habit 3: Put First Things First

Reading Time: 5 minutes

In the previous article we looked at the second habit, which is “Begin with the End in Mind”. The first habit (“Be Proactive”), says that we are the creator and we are in charge. Habit 2 (“Begin with the End in Mind”), is the first creation which is executed mentally and is based on our imagination.  In this post, we will look at the third habit which is “Put First Things First”. Habit 3 is the second creation or the “Physical Creation”. Habit 1 and Habit 2 are pre-requisites for Habit 3.

            “Put First Things First” is associated with prioritizing the important things that lead us to our goals.  In his essay “Common Denominator of Success”, E.M Gray states that a common characteristic found in successful people is “Putting First Things First”. This characteristic in addition to a combination of hard work, some good luck and development of good human relations are found in successful people. Gray further states that a successful person does things of high priority that others do not execute. Though successful people may not necessarily like to do the high priority tasks, they are able to subordinate their dislike to the strength of their purpose. Hence Covey states that the third habit is a strong function of independent will and self-discipline.

            Habit 3 is  linked to time management. According to Covey, Habit 3 focuses on organizing and executing around priorities. We need to understand that we are not prioritizing all the things that are on our plate, but identifying important activities that help us reach or goals.  Historically there are four generations of time management tools:

  • The first generation of time management tools were mainly notes and checklists. This method only works if all tasks have equal priority.
  • The second generation focused on calendars and appointments (looking ahead and scheduling activities)
  • The third generation includes focusing on short term and long term goals and linking them to scheduling of activities. The scheduling is done on a daily basis.
  • The fourth generation focuses on preserving and enhancing relationships and on accomplishing results. The 4th generation focuses on management of ourselves rather than time. The scheduling is done on a weekly basis. The schedule is also reviewed every day to make adjustments if required.

Most of the current generation time management techniques are focused on third generation tools. Third generation tools have made significant contributions to time management. However, efficient scheduling and control of time are often counter-productive.  For example when we are dealing with an important customer who is unhappy, it is not possible to setup a meeting for 30 minutes to resolve the issue. Since the goal is to address the problem and make the customer satisfied, we should be flexible enough to let the meeting take longer, if it leads to resolution of the problem.

A daily plan, makes flexibility hard to achieve. Daily planning compromises relationships, spontaneous actions and quality of life. This is the key reason why the 4th generation focuses on a weekly schedule. A weekly schedule provides us the flexibility to move activities around if required.

            The essence of the 4th generation time management can be captured in the time management matrix (adapted with some modifications from Covey’s book) shown below. Any activity is a function two factors:

  • Urgency (requires immediate attention)
  • Importance (contributes towards high priority goals)

 

  URGENT NOT URGENT
I

M

P

O

R

T

A

N

T

Quadrant I

 

1.      Crisis

2.      Pressing Problems

3.      Deadline Driven Tasks

4.      Medical Emergency

Quadrant II

 

1.      Prevention and Production Capacity activities

2.      Relationship Building

3.      Long Term Planning

4.      Learning new Skills

N

O

T

 

I

M

P

O

R

T

A

N

T

Quadrant III

 

1.      Some Phone calls

2.      Some Emails

3.      Tasks that can be delegated

4.      Popular Activities

5.      Some Meetings

Quadrant IV

 

1.      Time Wasters

2.      Pleasant activities which do not contribute to goals.

3.      Unimportant phone calls and emails.

 

We need to understand that all urgent tasks are not important. We sometimes execute urgent tasks, since they are pleasant, easy and fun. Execution of an urgent task gives us a sense of accomplishment. Important activities are focused on results and contribute towards achievement of high priority goals. Important activities often do not require immediate attention. Hence unless we are disciplined, we may inadvertently neglect the important activities. The key to successful time management is maximizing our time in Quadrant II. Numerous Quadrant II activities reduce the number of tasks that often move into Quadrant I. Since the total time available to us is fixed, spending time in Quadrant II is only possible if we minimize the time spent in Quadrants III and IV. People that end up spending most of their time in Quadrant I, end up getting stressed and burnt out. People who spend most of their time in Quadrants III and IV end up not being able to accomplish long term goals.

According to Covey, Quadrant II is the most important part of effective personal management. Quadrant II organization involves four key activities:

  • Identifying roles (e.g. Parent, student, manager at work etc)
  • Selecting goals for each role
  • Scheduling weekly activities
  • Reviewing the weekly schedule each day and adapting it if required.

 Here are a few examples of Quadrant II activities and the benefits they yield:

  • Regular exercise (key benefits: promotes a healthy life and minimizes medical problems during later stages of life)
  • A student studying regularly (Key benefits: retention of new concepts; reduced stress before exams; good performance)
  • Keeping up with on-going developments in our current work focus area (key benefit: alignment of our business with market needs; prevents our knowledge from getting outdated).
  • Spending time on a daily basis for a month end report (Key benefit: reduction of stress at the month end)

How can we reduce the time spent in Quadrant III and IV activities? Two powerful means are:

  • Saying “No” to unimportant activities.
  • Delegation

In order to be able to achieve our goals, we have to say no to at-least some of the Quadrant III and most of the Quadrant IV activities. Delegation of tasks (that can be delegated) is a powerful means of improving productivity and preventing burn out.

We either play the role of a producer or a manager in execution of a task. A producer can invest one hour of effort to produce one unit of results. If a manager has a team of 5 trained producers, delegation by work by the manger to his team can increase the hourly output to five units.  When we move up from being a producer at work to a manager we need to be able to identify and delegate appropriate activities to our team members.  This greatly enhances production capacity and prevents burn-out.

Covey recommends stewardship delegation which involves:

  • Creating a clear picture of desired results.
  • Define guidelines for achieving them
  • Identification of required resources
  • Defining accountability
  • Defining consequences (good and bad)

In summary, a Quadrant II focus (or paradigm) empowers us to remain principle centered and look through the lens of importance and not urgency. Effective people spend a significant amount of time in Quadrant II. They thus feed opportunities and starve problems according to Peter Drucker.

Hope you enjoyed this post. This post completes the Habits associated with the self. In the next post we will start looking into habits that involve Interdependence. The first in that list is Habit 4: “Think Win-Win”.

Reference: 25th Anniversary Edition “The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People” by Stephen R. Covey.

ByMani Prithiviraj

Habit 2: Begin With the End in Mind

Reading Time: 3 minutes

In article one and article two, we reviewed Covey’s 7 Habits of Effective people and the First Habit (Be Proactive). We understood how alignment of actions with natural principles, balance of production and production capacity are important. In this post, we will look at the second habit which is “Begin with the End in Mind”. This is the second habit associated with the self.

            “Begin with the End in Mind” means that we need to understand our destination clearly. This is important since it ensures that we take steps to go in the correct direction. Imagine that we are at Bangalore and we want to go to Roorkee. Unless and until we have the destination (Roorkee) in our mind, we cannot select the correct route map that will take us to Roorkee.

            The second habit is based on the principle that all things are created twice. Once in the mind and once physically. If we take the example of building a home, the builder first creates a blue print of the home. He / She then gets the material, workers and equipment, to physically construct the home making sure that it is built according to the specifications in the blue print.

Covey says that we need to realize that there are two creations and take responsibility for both. Leadership is the first creation and Management is the second creation. Peter Drucker and Warren Bennis explain this very well. They describe Leadership as doing the right thing, and Management as doing things right. Leadership focuses on the top line, whereas management focuses on the bottom line. If we take the example of using a ladder to reach our destination, leadership ensures that the ladder leans against the right wall and management ensures that we are efficient in climbing the ladder and get to the destination safely.

Covey says that the best way to “Begin with the End in Mind” is to develop Mission Statements. To build our mission statement, we need to begin at the centre of our circle of influence. The Centre according to him is the source of our security, guidance, wisdom and power. Security is our sense of worth; Guidance is the source of direction in our lives; Wisdom is our perspective on life and understanding how parts and principles apply and relate to each other; Power is the capacity to act and the strength to accomplish something. If we centre our life on correct principles, we create a solid foundation for our security, guidance, wisdom and power.

Mission statements (personal and professional) involve deep thought, participation of all stakeholders and take time to develop. It involves visualization as well as affirmation. Fulfilling mission statements is an on-going process and involves keeping our goals in mind and making sure that we are aligned with correct principles.

Dr. Charles Garfield has done extensive research on peak performers both in athletics and business. His research showed that most of the world class athletes and peak performers in business are all visualizers. They see, feel and experience it before actually doing what it takes them to succeed in their fields.  Simply stated, they begin with the end in mind.  For example an Indian Victory over West Indies in a one day international at Berbice, in West Indies, gave the inspiration and vision to Kapil Dev, that the Windies were beatable. The rest of course is history when India beat the Windies twice in 1983 in England and lifted the world cup.

Hope you enjoyed this post. In the next post, we will look at the 3rd  habit which is “Put First Things First”.

Reference: 25th Anniversary Edition “The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People” by Stephen R. Covey.

This is the eighth post for #MyFriendAlexa by #Blogchatter. I am taking my blog to the next level with #MyFriendAlexa and #Blogchatter.

ByMani Prithiviraj

Habit 1: Be Proactive

Reading Time: 3 minutes

 In the previous article, we reviewed Covey’s 7 Habits of Effective people. We understood  how alignment of actions with natural principles, balance of production and production capacity are important. In this post, we will look at the first habit which is “Be Proactive”. This is one of the habits associated with the self.

            Covey writes that a unique human endowment is “Self Awareness”. This is something that other life forms in the world do not possess. Some examples of Self Awareness are: self evaluation, learning from our experiences and learning from experiences of others. We have the ability not only to be trained, but also choose a training that suits us or even create a training.

            The term ‘proactivity’ is used a lot by modern organizations as a buzz word. While it refers mainly to taking the initiative, Covey explains that it goes well beyond that. According to him, proactivity also means that we are responsible for our lives and that our behavior is a function of our decisions and not conditions. We do not blame circumstances or others for problems that we face.

            I work in the area of customer support and one of the areas we focus on is proactive support. What is it that is different in proactive support? A few differentiators are:

  • In addition to resolving issues customers come to us for, we reach out to customers to see how they are doing and see if they need any help via phone, emails or visits.
  • Whenever a new release of a software is out, we explain new features that can be beneficial to the customers (rather than wait for the customers to ask us).
  • We offer to review existing processes to see if they can be improved to enhance productivity.

We see that the proactive support model give us a much higher probability of improving customer satisfaction, increasing their success and  encourage our customers to give us more business. It also improves the quality of our products, since we use feedback from the field and pass it on to the developers who work on enhancing the product.

We are all subject to Stimuli from the outside. Covey says that between Stimuli and Response, we have the ability to choose. A proactive person thinks and chooses an appropriate response to the stimulus he or she receives.  For example, one of our customers might come to us with a very harsh criticism. Now while the criticism might lack professionalism, the basis for the criticism may be justified. A proactive approach to the situation is to carefully analyze the problem in hand and focus on getting a solution for the problem.

During India’s Independence Struggle, Mahatma Gandhi remarked that “They cannot take away our self-respect if we do not give it to them”. The reason our feelings get hurt is not because of what happens to us, but our response to what happens to us.

As human beings we have several concerns in life. Concerns can be grouped into two areas as described by Covey. The inner circle in the figure below refers to things that are under our control. The outer circle describes things that are not directly within our control (e.g. the Weather, global economy)

 

Proactive people are focused mainly on the circle of influence. This approach helps in slowly expanding our circle of influence. On the other hand reactive people are more focused on the circle of concern.

Some of Covey’s suggestions for expanding our circle of influence are:

  • Being a better listener
  • Being a better spouse or family member
  • Being a better student and employee
  • Being a better manager.
  • Being a better teacher.

It is not that we completely ignore the circle of concern. We still need to think about it, but not let it be the major part of focus. We always have the choice of choosing an action. However, the outcome of our action is always aligned with natural principles. For example, we may choose not to wear our seat belt while travelling. However, if the vehicle comes to a sudden and  un-expected stop, we may get thrown, since that is a natural consequence the laws of physics.

According to Covey, the heart of the circle of influence is our ability to make and keep commitments and promises.  The commitments we make to ourselves and others and our ability to keep them is the clearest manifestation of our proactivity.

Hope you enjoyed this post. In the next post, we will look at the 2nd habit which is “Begin with the End in mind”.

Reference: 25th Anniversary Edition “The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People” by Stephen R. Covey.

This is the fourth post for #MyFriendAlexa by @Blogchatter. I am taking my blog to the next level with #MyFriendAlexa and #Blogchatter.

ByMani Prithiviraj

7 Habits of Highly Effective People

Reading Time: 2 minutes

The 7 habits of highly effective people is a compilation by Stephen Covey of age old natural principles. Examples of natural principles are fairness, integrity, dignity, service, patience, quality and excellence.  According to Covey, anyone who consciously aligns their goals (personal or professional)  to these natural principles is bound to be very successful in life (Mahatma Gandhi is an excellent example of a successful person since he was aligned with natural principles) 

If a farmer wants a good yield at the end of the year, he needs to take appropriate steps throughout the year (e.g. Prepare the land, plant the seed, irrigate the plants, remove the weeds and finally harvest) If a farmer skips any of the steps or tries to compress the process, he is not likely to be successful in getting a good harvest. Similarly, Covey says that in life one has to align goals (personal and professional) to be in line with natural principles to be successful.

Covey defines a ‘Habit’ as an intersection of knowledge, skill and desire. Knowledge refers to theory or the “what to”. Skill refers to the “How to” and Desire refers to “Want to”. In order to make something a habit, we need to have the knowledge, know how to execute and also have the desire to execute.

The 7 Habits are:

  1. Be Proactive
  2. Begin with the end in mind
  3. Put first things first
  4. Think Win-Win
  5. Seek first to Understand then to be Understood
  6. Synergize
  7. Sharpen the Saw

       The first three habits are focused on the self (inside) and the next three are focused on the outside (inter-personal relations). The last habit is the habit of rejuvenation or constant learning.

         Why are these habits of effectiveness? They are habits of effectiveness since they are all based on the natural principal of balancing production and the capability of production. Let us look at an organization with employees. Employees are capable of producing work which is beneficial to the organization. However employees also need to be cared for and nurtured,  in order to be able to produce work. If they over-worked and over-loaded by the management, then they lose the ability to produce results for the organization. A delicate balance between production and production capability is required according to Covey (similar to Aesop’s Fable story of the goose that laid the golden eggs).

          I was first introduced to Covey by my then reporting Manager Nathan Mac Donald in the year 2012. I can say for sure that ever since I started reading Covey’s book and making an attempt to follow them, I have seen small incremental improvements. My wish is that I had started when I was in school and college. However, I do believe that it is not late for anyone to start following the 7 habits of highly effective people. In my following posts, I will spend time discussing each of the seven habits.

Reference: 25th Anniversary Edition “The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People” by Stephen R. Covey.

This is the second post for #MyFriendAlexa. I am taking my blog to the next level with #MyFriendAlexa and #Blogchatter.

 

ByMani Prithiviraj

Conflict Resolution at the Workplace

Reading Time: 2 minutes

Advances in Technology and Market Pressures have led to increasing expectations on growth and performance in our workplace. Expectations can rarely be met purely based on individual efforts. Successful accomplishment of organizational goals requires collaboration and team work. Goals have to be accomplished with a diverse workforce (based on age, culture, work-styles). This gives rise to interesting challenges. Conflicts at the workplace can significantly impact achievement of goals. In this article I am going to write about common causes for conflict at the work place and methods that can be used for prevention and resolution of conflicts.

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