Tesla’s Role in Evolution of Electric Cars
Modern day private and public transportation are primarily based on non-renewable energy resources. These traditional forms of transportation contribute towards global warming since the one of the products of combustion using non-renewable fuels (e.g. Petrol, Diesel, Kerosene, Natural Gas) is Carbon-di-Oxide. Carbon-di-Oxide (CO2) is a greenhouse gas that traps heat in the atmosphere and leads to global warming. In addition, the exhaust from vehicles also contains pollutants like unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and soot.
Electric cars work on the principal of converting the chemical energy stored in batteries to mechanical energy using an electric motor. The mechanical energy is then transferred to the wheels of the car to propel it. The main systems in an electric car are the battery, inverter, motor, transmission, cooling system for the battery, cabin comfort and electronics. The first electric car actually dates back to 1832 when Scottish Inventor Robert Anderson invented a crude Electric Carriage. However, it is only in recent times has a commercially viable Electric Car made it to the market.
Advantages of Electric Car over Internal Combustion (IC) Engines
Key Challenges / Disadvantages of Electric Cars over IC Engines
One of the biggest contributors in recent times towards commercialization of the Electric Car is Tesla, which is an auto-manufacturer based out of California (Yes! California and not Detroit). Tesla was originally founded by Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpening in 2003. Eberhard was a smart engineer who wanted to reduce America’s dependence on oil. He built a technical model of an electric car using a spreadsheet. Tarpening focused on creating a financial model that would be required for Tesla. Prior to Tesla the previously founded car company in the US was Chrysler in 1925. The company founded by Eberherd and Tarpening was named Tesla as homage to inventor and electric motor pioneer Nikola Tesla. The company was set up with the objective of ending America’s dependence on oil. Elon Musk shared the vision of Eberhard and Tarpening in reducing America’s dependence on oil and agreed to contribute about $6.5 Million towards building of the first prototype (or mule) of the electric car that would be named the Roadster. This was the time when Musk became the CEO of Tesla.
Elon Musk was born in South Africa and then moved to Canada and later to the US. He was an avid reader, who could understand and digest huge volumes of information. As a youngster, he had read and remembered all facts in Encyclopedia Britannica. He got his dual degree from University of Pennsylvania (Economics and Physics). From his college days, Musk had a fascination for designing Electric Vehicles without compromising performance seen in traditional IC powered vehicles.
With Engineers like Straubel (who worked on using Lithium Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles), Gene Berdichevsky (who was a member of the Stanford Solar Powered Car team) and David Lyon (a clever Mechanical Engineer), Elon Musk assembled an enterprising team that built the first prototype of the Roadster. This team figured how to get the Motors, Batteries, Power Electronics, Transmission and Electronic controls all to work together. The team also worked on various design aspects including, ensuring sufficient cooling of the battery pack, safety of the battery pack, crash protection of the vehicle to name a few. The Roadster could accelerate from 0 to 60mph in about 4 seconds and it had numerous revolutionary features (e.g. door handles that automatically popped out when the driver approached the vehicle, a 17- inch Infotainment system for controls and navigation)
To keep costs under control, Tesla decided to have different parts of the vehicle manufactured in different locations around the globe and assembled. (e.g. Batteries were manufactured in Thailand, Body Panels in France). Between 2008 and 2012, Tesla sold about 2500 Roadsters.
May key global Automotive companies (BMW, Honda, GM, Daimler to name a few) have taken note of Tesla’s success and have started designing Electric Cars. In India, we have started seeing a few Electric Vehicles on the road, with Mahindra and Mahindra being a key player in the 4 Wheeler segment (e.g e2O, E-Verito). Companies like Ather Energy are producing Electric Scooters (Model 350 and 450). In addition companies like Bajaj and TVS are investing in bringing Electric Scooters to market.
The share of electric vehicles in the world market is expected to grow steadily over the next 10-15 years. This will help the world move away from dependence on oil and in reduction of greenhouse gases.
Automobiles have evolved rapidly in the last 30-40 years. This article reviews future trends of Automobiles. As we survey the current landscape of the automotive industry, let us have a look at the future trends in automobiles.
We will discuss them one by one.
Introduction – reasons for good design:
When we buy a new car, we may have a number of expectations. e.g. We would like the car to be fuel efficient, comfortable in the cabin, be able to ride well in all kinds of roads, provide us a safe ride. When an airline buys an aircraft, they have expectations. e.g. Trouble free operation with minimal down time, integrity of the structure of the airplane, comfort of passengers in the cabin, reliable operation of the engine (from taxi, take off, ascent, cruise, descent and landing). When the government has a power plant commissioned, they would like to ensure that the plant delivers the required power, has the infrastructure to meet environmental emission standards and has good efficiency (conversion of energy into electricity). When an appliance manufacturer designs a washing machine, they would like to ensure that the system ensures good mixing of the water and detergent, proper agitation to remove dirt from the clothes and good ability to remove water from the clothes during the spin cycle.
All these examples show that a good design is needed for efficient functioning of the appliance/airplane/power plant etc
Methods of good design:
There are two principal methods for ensuring a good design:
a) Testing of Prototypes and the Final Product
b) Performing virtual simulations using a computer.
The traditional method of design predominantly involved testing. Testing was considered to be the only fool proof method of ensuring a good design. However testing is expensive, time consuming, sometimes not possible in hazardous environments, and has difficulty to replicate all real-world operating scenarios.
b. Virtual simulations
Computer Simulations (also known as Virtual Simulations or Numerical Simulations) provide an attractive alternative. Instead of performing a physical test in a lab, one can perform a virtual test on a computer. The virtual test of course needs to be validated against physical tests (or experiments) to build confidence in the computer simulation. The cost involved for performing Virtual Simulations (typically computer hardware, software license and a trained engineer) is a lot cheaper than the cost involved for performing a physical test.
With the ever increasing power of computing, virtual simulations have become a cheaper and time efficient alternative to physical testing.
Now, there are two classes of problems. A) Problems that have an analytical solution b) Problems that do not have an analytical solution. The second class of problems involve modelling assumptions, and the results need to be interpreted carefully, keeping in mind the modelling assumptions. For both class of problems mentioned above, companies have been making a conscious shift from Physical Testing towards Virtual Simulations over the last 15 years.
Companies and design:
Most companies rely heavily on computer simulations at a very early stage of the design cycle to select a group of good designs. During the final stages of design, they test the good designs predicted by simulations. On successful confirmation of the designs, the product is released to the market. This approach enables companies to keep costs reasonable and also shorten the design cycle resulting in valuable time savings. In an evolving, demanding and competitive market environment, Virtual Simulations play a very important role.
Types of simulations:
Simulations themselves could either be 1D or 3D. 1D simulations are faster to run and enable system level simulations (e.g. Entire Powertrain of a Vehicle). 3D simulations take longer to run, but can provide three dimensional information about the system being analyzed (e.g. The temperature and pressure at every location within an Internal combustion engine). Companies typically use a combination of 1D and 3D simulation tools during the product design phase.
Both domestic and multi-national automotive manufactures have traditionally used Wind Tunnels for drag reduction of their vehicles. Reducing drag improves the fuel economy of the car. The manufacturers now use computer simulations to simulate both wind tunnel as well as on-road driving conditions. A computer simulation can provide the manufacturer detailed pressure, temperature and flow distribution around the car (to the tune of several million locations). It would be prohibitively expensive to get the same information from a wind tunnel test (since pressure and temperature transducers and data collection systems are expensive). The computed data can be visualized on a computer.
As the expectations from the market keep rising every year, Virtual Simulations are now playing a very important role to help companies to come up with designs meeting customer requirements.
Advances in Technology and Market Pressures have led to increasing expectations on growth and performance in our workplace. Expectations can rarely be met purely based on individual efforts. Successful accomplishment of organizational goals requires collaboration and team work. Goals have to be accomplished with a diverse workforce (based on age, culture, work-styles). This gives rise to interesting challenges. Conflicts at the workplace can significantly impact achievement of goals. In this article I am going to write about common causes for conflict at the work place and methods that can be used for prevention and resolution of conflicts.